Shadow effect

State Pre-Kindergarten Programs

National Assessment of Educational Progress (2022 & 2019 Report Results)

Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge Grant Background

Federal Budget Issues

Source: Division H- FY2016 Departments of Labor, HHS and Education and Related Agencies, contained in the Consolidated Appropriations Act of FY2016.

Note: *With regard to the Head Start increase of $576 million, $429 million of that funding goes for competitive expansions to full day programs ($294 million) and an increase of $135 million for Early Head Start (including EHS/Child Care partnerships).

To read the House Majority Summary of the 2016 Consolidated Appropriations Act, click here. To read the House Democratic summary, click here.

Other Related Budget Background


The Protecting Americans From Tax Hikes Act of 2015

Another end of the year bill, The Protecting Americans From Tax Hikes Act of 2015, includes changes to the tax code which are estimated at losing about $623 billion over the next 10 years. Some of the provisions make sections of the current tax code permanent (instead of allowing them to expire), some make modifications, and some repeal some sections of the code.

FY2016 Federal Budget

2016 First Continuing Resolution (Expired December 9, 2016):

On September 28, two days before the end of the fiscal year, Congress approved a Continuing Resolution (CR) to continue federal funding through December 9, 2016 (P.L. 114-223). A 10 week CR was necessary because the fiscal year ended September 30th and Congress was scheduled to adjourn (i.e., recess through the November elections).  Funding was largely continued at FY2016 levels (a freeze) until final determinations can be made in December. Note: An across-the-board spending reduction of .5% was applied in order to keep spending below budget caps.

Joint Tax Committee Revenue Estimates

FY2017 Continuing Resolution (PL114-254),  Expired April 28, 2017.  Congress adjourned in December 2016 without passing a full year continuing resolution (CR). Instead, a short-term continuing resolution funding the government through April 28, 2017 was enacted. In order to stay within budget caps enacted as part of the 2015 budget law, a .19% across the board cut was applied.

FY2017 Federal Budget

FY2017 Omnibus Appropriations Act (PL115-31) was enacted on May 4, 2017.

FY2018 Senate Labor, HHS and Education Appropriations bill: On September 7, the Senate Appropriations Committee approved the FY2018 Senate Labor, HHS and Education Appropriations bill. For early learning programs, both the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) and Head Start were frozen at FY2017 funding levels. For more information, see the bill summary, the bill text, and the Committee report.

Past Continuing Resolutions for FY2018

P.L. 115-123 was enacted to continue government operations from 2/8/18 - 3/23/18. P.L. 115-120 was enacted to continue government operations from 1/22/18 – 2/8/18. P.L. 115-96 was enacted to continue government operations from 12/22/17 – 1/19/18. P.L. 115-90 was enacted to continue government operations from 12/8/17 – 12/22/17.  P.L. 115-56 was enacted to continue government operations from 9/8/17 – 12/8/17. 

FY2018 Budget

On September 18, 2018 the Senate approved HR 6157, the “minibus” reflecting a combined FY2019 Department of Defense and Labor, HHS, and Education appropriations conference report by a vote of 93-7. The measure also included continuing funding authority through December 7, 2018 for annual appropriations bill not yet approved.

TANF Budget Background

FY2019 Budget

FY2020 Omnibus Appropriations

On December 20, 2019, the FY2020 non-defense consolidated appropriations bill (HR 1865, PL116-94) was signed into law containing 8 appropriations bills including the FY2020 Labor, HHS, and Education Appropriations measure and a revenue package. The FY2020 defense and related agencies consolidated appropriations bill (HR 1158, PL116-93) was also signed into law on December 20. 

The CARES Act. In March of 2020, Congress passed three major bills that were signed into law to address the COVID-19 national emergency.

Each of these measures seeks to provide assistance to individuals, families, and businesses as the nation weathers the impacts of COVID-19. Texts and summaries of these bills are to the right. 

Funding for programs included in the CARES Act signed into law on March 28, 2020 related to child care are listed below. More information related to COVID-19 and assistance available to parents, employers, and communities is located on Early Learning Policy Group's COVID-19 resource page.

COVID-19 Congressional Action in Brief:

The FY2021 Consolidated Appropriations and COVID-19 Emergency Relief Act (December 27, 2021, (P.L. 116-260)

COVID-19 Relief: Child Care Funding Increase ($10 billion)

COVID-19 Relief: SBA Paycheck Protection Program & EIDL

COVID-19 Relief: Unemployment Compensation

COVID-19 Relief: Tax Extenders

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, March 27, 2020, (P.L. 116-136)

The Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA), March 18, 2020, (P.L.116-127)

Fiscal Year 2020 Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, March 6, 2020, (P.L. 116-123)

Early Learning Policy Group COVID-19 Resource Page

The latest on the Federal Budget:

On December 27, the FY2021 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 116-260), a 5,593 page bill that included appropriations for federal funding for FY2021, a broad-based COVID-19 emergency relief package, and various tax extenders (some of which were related to COVID-19 emergency relief and some were tax provisions set to expire) became law.

Funds for key early learning and family services programs are listed below, which includes base funding for FY2021 as well as additional increases in funding for child care and Head Start programs provided as part of emergency COVID-19 relief.

FY2021 Consolidated Appropriations Act & COVID-19 Relief Tax Provisions

  • Summary of the tax provisions contained in the new law is here.
  • Joint Tax Committee revenue estimates of the tax provisions is here.

Schoolhouse Rock Update

On March 15, 2022, HR 2471, the FY2022 Consolidated Appropriations Act became law (P.L. 117-103).

FY2021 Appropriations

On December 29, 2022, the FY2023 Consolidated Appropriations Act became law (P.L. 117-328). On March 9, 2023, President Biden proposed the administration's budget for FY2024.

FY2022 Appropriations